Simultaneous measurement of ground forces (blue) and kinematics such as petiole trajectories (red) and stepping pattern (yellow) of walking desert ants in a laboratory environment in order to describe the alternating tripod gait.The kinematic data can be used to determine fundamental motion attributes such as velocity, acceleration, joint angles, and the sequencing and timing of kinematic events.The energetics of locomotion involves the energy expenditure by animals in moving.

For example, studies frequently combine EMG and kinematics to determine motor pattern, the series of electrical and kinematic events that produce a given movement.

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McNeill Alexander, Robert. (2003) Principles of Animal Locomotion.Animals move through, or on, four types of environment: aquatic (in or on water), terrestrial (on ground or other surface, including arboreal, or tree-dwelling), fossorial (underground), and aerial (in the air).Some light animals are able to climb up smooth sheer surfaces or hang upside down by adhesion.What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page.

Centipedes and millipedes have many sets of legs that move in metachronal rhythm.Treadmills are used to allow animals to walk or run while remaining stationary with respect to external observers.

There are also many animal species that depend on their environment for transportation, a type of mobility called passive locomotion, e.g., sailing (some jellyfish), kiting (spiders) and rolling (some beetles and spiders).Prehensile quadrupeds may use their tail to assist in locomotion and when grazing, the kangaroos and other macropods use their tail to propel themselves forward with the four legs used to maintain balance.

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This is useful because surface kinematics may be inaccurate due to skin movement.

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The male becomes dependent on the female host for survival by receiving nutrients via their shared circulatory system, and provides sperm to the female in return.

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For example, tapeworms attach themselves to the inside of the alimentary tracts of other animals and do not locomote within the animal.Protected by hard chitin in this position, they are expelled from the nest without injury and can search for a less hostile host.

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Get access to the latest features of Adobe Photoshop. within Photoshop and pose characters by. tools that were previously in Photoshop Extended.Species have different numbers of legs resulting in large differences in locomotion.Many animals—for example semi-aquatic animals, and diving birds —regularly move through more than one type of medium.This can be accomplished either by surface electrodes (usually in large animals) or implanted electrodes (often wires thinner than a human hair).

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This surface locomotion takes advantage of the surface tension of water.Diving birds also use diving locomotion (e.g., dippers, aulks).Rather than active flight, some (semi-) arboreal animals reduce their rate of falling by gliding.Energy consumed in locomotion is not available for other efforts, so animals typically have evolved to use the minimum energy possible during movement.